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RAF Aircraft Cigarette Cards Part 5

Tonight we come to the fifth and final post covering the RAF Aircraft cigarette cards published by Players in the late 1930s. I hope you have enjoyed these posts as much as I have, many of these aircraft are virtually forgotten now and I must confess to having a soft spot for the lumbering biplanes of the interwar period!

Card 41- Airspeed Unnamed Radio-Controlled Target Aircraft.

Designed for the Navy and Army Anti-Aircraft Batteries, this aeroplane made its first public appearance at the Royal Air Force Display at Hendon in June 1937. Although still officially unnamed, it is usually referred to as the “Queen Wasp”. The engine is an Armstrong Siddeley “Cheetah” air-cooled 7 clylinder radial. Performance details of this aircraft are still secret. Arrangements are made for the fitting of floats in place of the usual land undercarriage, enabling the aircraft to be used either as a landplane or seaplane.SKM_C45817061407561 - Copy

Card 42- D.H. “Queen Bee” Radio-Controlled Target Aircraft

The “Queen Bee” is virtually a standard D.H. “Tiger Moth” equipped as a radio-controlled pilotless aircraft for use as a gunnery target. Apart from the radio-control equipment, the “Queen Bee” is also fitted with catapulting points and slinging gear, and may be used either as a landplane or seaplane. The engine is a “Gipsy-Major” 4-cylinder inverted air-cooled motor of 130 h.p. Performance details are not available for publication. H.M. The king witnessed a demonstration of “Queen Bee” flying when he visited the Fleet in June, 1938.SKM_C45817061407561 - Copy (2)

Card 43- Airspeed “Oxford” Advanced Training Aircraft

This aircraft, which is designed for training, is a graceful low-wing monoplane, built by Airspeed Ltd., and fitted with two Armstrong Siddeley “Cheetah X” engines of 350 h.p. each. The equipment provides for training in navigation, bomb aiming and wireless operation. The “Oxford” has a wing span of 53 feet 3 inches and a top speed of 187 m.p.h. Its flight endurance is 5 hours. It is finished in bright yellow, the distinguishing colour of trainer aircraft.SKM_C45817061407561 - Copy (3)

Card 44- Avro “Prefect” Navigational Training Aircraft

An adaptation of the well-known Avro “Tutor” specially equipped for navigational training in the Royal Air Force. Full cloud-flying equipment, blind-flying hood, etc., are provided. Except for this specialised equipment the “Prefect” is identical to the “Tutor”. An Armstrong-Siddeley “Lynx” engine of 215 h.p. is fitted. The aircraft has a wing span of 34 feet, a length of 26 feet 6 inches and a height of 9 feet 7 inches.SKM_C45817061407561 - Copy (4)

Card 45- Avro “Tutor” Training Aircraft

A two-seater equal span single-bay training aircraft, used for elementary training. Complete dual control is fitted, and a 215 h.p. Armstrong Siddeley “Lynx” 7-cylinder radial air cooled engine provides a maximum speed of 122 m.p.h. A seaplane version of this aircraft, known as the “Seatutor” is also built, and is almost identical to the landplane apart from having a slightly lower performance. The “Tutor” has a wing span of 34 feet, a length of 26 feet 6 inches and a height of 9 feet 7 inches.SKM_C45817061407561

Card 46- D.H. “Tiger Moth” Training Aircraft

This aeroplane was designed as an efficient elementrary and intermediate training biplane, but in addition it is used in the Service for communication duties. Complete dual control is fitted and, if desired, floats may be employed in lieu of wheels, rendering the aircraft suitable for seaplane training. A D.H. “Gipsy Major” 4-cylinder-in-line inverted air cooled engine is installed, and in the case of the landplane produces a maximum speed of about 109 m.p.h. The “Tiger Moth” has a wing span of 29 feet 4 inches, a length of 23 feet 11 inches and a height of 8 feet 9 ½ inches.SKM_C45817061507530 - Copy

Card 47- Miles “Magister” Training Aircraft

A low wing trainer monoplane built by Phillips & Powis, the Miles “Magister” is fitted with a de Havilland “Gipsy Major” engine of 130 h.p. Its lines are noticeably graceful. The wing span is 33 feet 10 inches and the length 25 feet 3 inches. The cockpits are open and are set tandem fashion. There are full controls and instruments including blind-flying equipment. Like other trainers, the “Magister” is finished in a bright shade of yellow. Trainer aircraft are specially designed and fitted for the highly important functions which they perform.SKM_C45817061507530 - Copy (2)

Card 48- Miles Unnamed Training Aircraft

This low-wing cantilever monoplane is a high speed trainer built by Phillips & Powis. It mounts a Rolls Royce “Kestrel XVI” engine of a maximum output of 745 h.p. The two seats are placed tandem and there are dual controls. The undercarriage is retractable, while a feature of the design is the unusually thick wing. The machine has a top speed of 295 m.p.h. Modern high-speed flying demands a special technique which this aircraft is designed to teach, but it can also be employed as a general purpose type suitable for fighting, light bombing or reconnaissance.SKM_C45817061507530 - Copy (3)

Card 49- Vickers “Virginia” Parachute Training Aircraft

Originally designed as a bomber, this aeroplane is now used for parachute training. An unusual feature of the design is the double set of landing wheels. The aircraft is fitted with two Napier “Lion” 12 cylinder “W” type liquid-cooled engines mounted between the wing stuts. The dimensions of the “Virginia” are imposing- wing span 87 feet 8 inches, length 62 feet 3 inches, heigh 17 feet 9 inches. A comparison of the “Virginia” with more recent types of bomber (e.g. “Battle” and “Wellesley”) shows the rapid advance made in general design.SKM_C45817061507530 - Copy (4)

Card 50- Vickers “Valentia” Troop Carrier

This type is a development of the “Victoria” V and VI bomber transport aeroplanes, and is fitted with two Bristol “Pegasus” II L.3 engines. Provision is made for carrying a spare engine on the bottom inner port plane. The aircraft is 59 feet long, and has a wingspan of 87 feet 7 inches. When used for transport the “Valentia” carries 21 troops besides a crew of 2, including the pilot. It has a range of about 650 miles and has been largely used for moving troops expeditiously over rough country. Most of this type are stationed abroad.SKM_C45817061507530

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RAF Aircraft Cigarette Cards Part 3

Tonight we come to the third of our five posts covering the Player’s cigarette card series “Aircraft of the Royal Air Force”. This week the cards focus mainly on fighter aircraft.

No. 21- Gloster “Gauntlet” Fighter

This is a biplane fighter built by the Gloster Aircraft Co. Ltd., and fitted with a Bristol “Mercury” air-cooled engine which develops 645 h.p. at a high altitude. The wings are “staggered”, the upper wing being mounted further forward than the lower. The maximum speed is 230 m.p.h. 2 machine guns are mounted on the sides of the fuselage. The Gloster “Gauntlet” has a wing span of 32 feet 10 inches, a length of 26 feet 2 inches and a height of 10 feet 2 inchesSKM_C45817052508060No 22.- Gloster “Gladiator “ Fighter

An all metal biplane fighter and a development of the earlier “Gauntlet” being faster and more heavily armed. It is fitted with a Bristol “Mercury IX” engine which develops 840 h.p. at 12,500 feet. The single-strut undercarriage is an unusual feature. The “Gladiator” has a wing span of 32 feet 3 inches- 7 inches less that the “Gauntlet”- and attains a maximum speed of 255 m.p.h. The armament consists of 4 machine guns, 2 in the fuselage and 2 in the wings.SKM_C45817060207580No 23.- Gloster Unnamed Fighter

This single seater fighter, built by the Gloster Aircraft Co., and fitted with a Bristol “Mercury IX” or “Perseus” engine, is of recent introduction and its performance figures are still secret. It is a low-wing monoplane with monocoque fuselage. The construction is all metal and the covering metal-stressed skin throughout, except for fabric covered rudder, elevators and ailerons. The fin and rudder are placed noticeably further forward, relative to the tail plane, than is usual. The aircraft has a wing span of 38 feet 2 inches and a length of 31 feet.SKM_C45817060207580 - CopyNo 24.- Hawker “Demon” Fighter

Built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd., and fitted with a Rolls-Royce “Kestrel V” engine developing 575/600 h.p. at 11,000 feet, this is the only two-seater fighter in service with the exception of a development of the service type “Demon I (turret)”. The “Demon” is a biplane with a wing span of slightly more than 37 feet, which is somewhat wider than is general in aircraft of this type. The “Demon” develops a top speed of about 182 m.p.h. but its range is no less than 404 miles. The design, apart from the two-seater construction, follows conventional lines. The rear cockpit accommodates the gunner.SKM_C45817060207580 - Copy (2)No 25.- Hawker “Demon I (Turret)” Fighter

Structurally this aeroplane is identical with the normal “Demon” two-seater fighter, but in place of the rear gunner’s cockpit a power-operated turret is installed. The engine is a Rolls-Royce “Kestrel V” (derated) 12-Cylinder Vee liquid-cooled engine giving a maximum output of 584 h.p. The majority of the two-seater fighter squadrons of the Royal Air Force are now equipped with this aircraft. The maximum speed is 180 m.p.h. at 20,000 feet. The wing span is 37 feet 3 inches, length 29 feet 6 inches and height 10 feet 9 inches.SKM_C45817060207580 - Copy (3)No 26.- Hawker “Fury” Fighter

This aptly named single-seater fighter is built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd., and fitted with a Rolls-Royce “Kestrel” engine developing 480 h.p. at 11,500 feet. The construction is composite, being partly wood and partly metal. The airscrew is wood. The under-carriage is of a conventional v-type with Oleo legs and tubular axle. The “Fury”, which has a high degree of manoeuvrability, attains a speed of 223 m.p.h at 15,000 feet and lands at 62.5 m.p.h. A development of the type is the “Fury II” which mounts a “Kestrel VI” engine.SKM_C45817060207580 - Copy (4)No 27.- Hawker “Hurricane” Fighter

This single-seater fighter is probably the most discussed type now in service. A “Hurricane” recently covered the 327 miles from Edinburgh to Northolt in 48 minutes. The type combines high speed with ease of manoeuvre and slow landing, and the beautifully streamlined design gives an impression of power that is confirmed by the machine’s performance. The “Hurricane” is a low wing cantilever monoplane with a 40-feet wing span, built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. It is fitted with a Rolls-Royce “Merlin” engine developing 1,050 h.p. The armament consists of 8 machine guns, mounted 4 in each wing.SKM_C45817060207580 - Copy (5)No 28.- Supermarine “Spitfire I” Fighter

A single seater fighter monoplane in which many of the lessons learned by Supermarine Aviation (Vickers) Lt., in producing high-speed seaplanes for the Schneider Trophy Contests, have been incorporated. All-metal stressed skin construction has been used. The pilot’s cockpit is enclosed and a retractable undercarriage is fitted. Power is provided by a Rolls-Royce “Merlin” 12-cylinder liquid-cooled engine, and the “Spitfire” has been claimed to be the fastest military aeroplane in the world. Performance figures are not available. The aircraft has a wing span of 37 feet and a length of 30 feet.SKM_C45817060207581 - CopyNo 29.- Saro “London” Flying Boat

Saunders Roe are the builders of this imposing open-sea reconnaissance flying boat, which is fitted with two Bristol “Pegasus” engines. The “London” is a sesquiplane biplane of metal construction and has fabric covered wings. Wing-tip floats are fitted to the bottom plane. A beaching chassis, consisting of two large disc wheels and a tail-trolley, enables the “London” to be hauled up the slipway. There are gun positions in the nose, amidships and in the tail. The range of the “London” is 880 sea miles and it carries a crew of 5 (pilot, navigator and 3 gunners). The wing span is 80 feet and length 56 feet 6 inches.SKM_C45817060207581 - Copy (2)No 30.- Short “Singapore III” Flying Boat

This metal hull biplane, built by Short Bros. Ltd., and fitted with 4 Rolls-Royce “Kestrel” engines is the third of the “Singapore” series and is designed for reconnaissance work. The engines are mounted tandem between the wings, the lower wing being fitted with wing-tip floats for lateral stabilisation. There are machine-gun mountings at the bow, centre and tail. The aircraft develops a top-speed of 118 knots (136 m.p.h.), has a range of 865 sea miles and carries a crew of 6. It is a sesquiplane, i.e. the wings are of unequal span. The crew’s quarters have bunks, cooking apparatus, work bench and stowage for dinghies.SKM_C45817060207581 - Copy (3)

RAF Aircraft Cigarette Cards Part 2

We continue our look at the 1938 Player’s Cigarette Card set ‘Aircraft of the Royal Air Force’ with cards 11-20 tonight. These cards focus on bombers and whilst one or two are very familiar today, most of these designs have long been forgotten. As ever the captions are the original wording printed on the back of each card.

No. 11- Fairey “Battle” Bomber

Produced by the Fairey Aviation Co., Ltd., this aircraft is a low wing monoplane bomber with monocoque fuselage and metal-skinned wing and tail surfaces. A feature of the fuselage is the continuous transparent fairing over the cockpits which accommodate the crew of 2. A fixed machine gun is mounted in the starboard wing and a free gun in the rear cockpit. The power unit is a Roll-Royce “merlin” super-charged engine. The “Battle” has a top speed of about 257 M.p.h. and a normal range of approximately 1,000 miles. The wing span is 54 feet and the length is 42 feet 4 ½ inches.No. 12- Fairey “Gordon” Bomber

An aircraft which may be employed for either general purpose or bombing duties and although no longer in squadron use at home, it still forms the equipment of certain overseas units. It is also used for towing sleeve targets at Armament Trainig Stations in this country. The ‘plane is fitted with an Armstrong Siddeley “Panther” 14-cylinder double-row radial air-cooled engine of over 500 h.p. The maximum speed is in the region of 140 m.p.h. There is a pilot and one other. The Fairey “Gordon” has a wing span of 45 feet 8 ½ inches, a length of 34 feet 2 ½ inches and a height of 10 feet 11 inches.No 13.- Fairey “Hendon” Bomber

Constructed by the Fairey Avaiation Co., Ltd., and mounting two Rolls Royce “Kestrel VI” engines of 600 h.p. each. The “Hendon” is an all-metal low-wing cantilever monoplane of clean design. The wing span is 101 feet 9 inches and the length 60 feet 9 inches. A separate dual-control unit, which can be readily fitted, is included in the equipment. A searchlight to facilitate night landing is mounted on the aircraft which carries a crew of 4 including the pilot. The “Hendon” has a range of 800 miles and a speed ranging from 129 m.p.h. at 3,000 feet to 152 m.p.h. at 12,000 feet. The landing speed is only 55 m.p.h. There are three gun positions.No 14.- Fairey Unnamed Bomber (Fulmar)

This is a lo wing monoplane bomber, built by the Fiary Avaiation Co., Ltd., and fitted with a RollS Royce “Merlin” engine. It has not yet been named. It is a two-seater aircraft with monocoque fuselage, metal skinned wing and tail surface, and fabric covered control surfaces. There is a retractable Oleo-pneumatic undercarriage. The wing span is 47 feet 4 inches. This aircraft is similar in construction to the Fairey “Battle”, but is smaller in size and weight and should therefore improve substantially on the “Battle’s” performance.No 15.- Handley Page “Hampden” Bomber

Some of the details of this recent bomber are still secret. It is designed by Handley Page Ltd., and mounts two Bristol “Pegasus XX” engines. The construction is all metal with totally enclosed stations for the crew of 4. The undercarriage and tail wheel are retractable and there are automatic wing slots and twin fins and rudders. The wing span is 69 feet 4 inches and the length 52 feet 5 inches. The wings taper noticeably in chord and thickness. There are 3 machine-gun positions- one in the nose, one above the fuselage and one below the fuselage, an unusual position made possible by the break in the lower fuselage line.No. 16- Handley Page “Harrow” Bomber

This aircraft is the largest bomber at present in service, having a wing span of 88 feet 5 inches. It is built by Handley Page Lt., and mounts two Bristol “Pegasus” engines of 850 h.p. A high-wing monoplane of all-metal construction, its wing and fuselage are fabric covered, the whole being camouflage finished. The crew of 5 includes 2 pilots. The “Harrow” has a speed of 190 m.p.h. and a range of approximately 1,250 miles at normal cruising speed. Among other features of the “Harrow” are automatic wing slots and covered in cockpits.No. 17- Handley Page “Heyford” Bomber

This aircraft is a biplane bomber of all metal construction. The fuselage is built in a high position directly under the top plane, thus giving a good view for the pilot and bomb aimer. The two engines are Rolls-Royce “Kestrels” of 480 h.p. each. A crew of 4 is carried and the armament consists of 3 machine guns on rotatable mountings. The “Heyford” has a maximum speed of 142 m.p.h. and its dimensions are wing span 75 feet, length 58 feet and height 17 feet 6 inches.No. 18- Hawker “Hind” Bomber

The design of this biplane bomber is essentially that of the earlier “Hart” of which it is a development. It is fitted with a Roll-Royce “Kestrel” supercharged engine giving a maximum output of 640 h.p. The “Hind” carries a crew of 2, mounts a machine gun, firing forward, and also a lewis gun; it has a maximum speed of 192.2 m.p.h. and a range of 393 miles. It is small, as bomber go, the dimensions being; wing span 37 feet 3 inches, length 29 feet 7 inches and height 10 feet 7 inches. The construction is all metal of steel and duralinium with fabric covering. The “Hind” is one of the few types of biplane bomber now in service.No. 19- Vickers “Vildebeest” Torpedo Bomber

Of all-metal construction, this biplane is a dual-purpose type, designed to carry either bombs or marine torpedoes. It is used for coastal defence. The power unit is a Bristol “Pegasus” of 580 h.p. at 5,000 feet. The “Vildebeest” has the relatively low maximum speed of 131.5 m.p.h., but its range is no less than 566 miles. The service load is 2,704 lb. including the crew. The dimensions are: wing span 49 feet, length 36 feet and height 15 feet 10 inches. A crew of 2 is carried, but provision is made for carrying an additional member when service conditions require it.No. 20- Vickers “Wellington I” Bomber

Of “Geodetic” construction, this aircraft is the first twin-engined machine to be built utilising this system, and is the subject of a large Air Ministry order. Performance figures are still secret, but it is believed that the range will be outstanding, and the maximum speed very high for an aircraft of this type. It is of all metal construction, and features of the design are the retractable undercarriage, trailing edge flaps and trimming tabs on elevators and rudder. Engines may be either Bristol “Pegasus” of “Hercules” or Rolls-Royce “Merlin”. A crew of 4 is carried. The wing span is 86 feet and length 60 feet 9 inches.

ARP Cigarette Cards (Part 3)

We come to our third and final post on the Will’s ARP cigarette cards, looking at another ten examples form this set. I have now managed to add a full set in the album to my collection so we may come back later and look at the other twenty cards in due course.

Card 31- The Service Respirator

This is the respirator designed for the fighting services. It will also be used by members of the civil Air Raid Precautions services who might have strenuous duties to perform in heavy gas concentrations. This respirator gives the same protection as the Civilian Respirator but for a longer period. It is designed so that the weight of the container portion is carried in the haversack on the chest, and the special face-piece allows heavy and accurate work to be performed without difficulty.skm_c45817021416010-copyCard 32- A Heavy Anti-Gas Suit

The illustration shows member of a decontamination squad in oilskin suits, rubber boots and respirators; a hood is also worn, but this is not shown in the picture. This equipment will give complete protection against the liquid or vapour of mustard or other persistent gases. It is essential to have squads of men trained to work in this equipment so that they can deal with and effectively neutralise any contamination which may have taken place. Owing to the fact that no air can get into the suits, men cannot work in them for very long periods of time.skm_c45817021416012-copy-6Card 33- Rubber Clothing

During an air raid the safety of the citizen may depend to considerable extent on his knowledge of how to behave. Splashings from the liquid liberated form certain gas bombs, or subsequent contact with it, produce a serious blistering of the skin. The Government provides each individual with a respirator which is complete protection for the eyes, throat and lungs. Prudent persons, if forced to go out of doors during raids, should provide themselves, in addition, with rubber or oilskin coats and hats, and rubber boots.skm_c45817021416010-copy-9

Card 34-Air Raid Wardens and Civilian Volunteer Despatch Rider

Air raid wardens are volunteers enrolled by the local authority. They are specially trained to advise their fellow citizens on Air Raid Precautions and to act as reporting agents of bomb damage. In the event of an air raid, they would be stationed at “warden’s posts”, perhaps a quarter of a mile apart, or less. The picture shows wardens handing reports to a volunteer despatch-rider. All wear steel helmets and Civilian Duty Respirators. The wardens are also wearing armlets. Note the shading device on the lamp of the motor cycle.skm_c45817021416012-copy-7Card 35- Volunteer Mobile Corps (Owner Drivers)

Patriotic owners of private cars throughout the country have offered their services and their cars free to local authorities engaged on schemes of Air Raid Precautions. Such action has materially helped in providing the necessary transport required for Air Raid Precautions services in many towns and urban districts. This picture shows the drivers of some fifty cars running to their vehicles during a practice alarm at a well-known seaside resort. From their place of assembly, these cars were driven to various strategic points in the town, including the Fire Stations and Police Stations, whence their services were utilized as required, in accordance with a pre-arranged plan.skm_c45817021416012-copy-5Card 36- A First Aid Party

The picture shows the four members of a first aid party running with a stretcher to a place where casualties have occurred. As gas has been used, they are wearing a light suit of protective clothing, with gum boots and Service Respirators. The scheme of Air Raid Precautions provides for the establishment of first aid posts in large numbers, so that they will be within easy access of any casualty. Such posts will be equipped to deal with minor injuries and casualties due to non-persistent gases.skm_c45817021416012-copyCard 37- Supply Depot for Respirators

This subject shows the examination of respirators at one of London’s Regional Supply Depots, of which there are now three in existence to serve the needs of the Metropolis. Ten similar Regional Supply Depots are being constructed in the provinces. Respirators, after being suitably packed for long storage at these Depots, are then to be moved to store centres. Each store centre is expected to house about 30,000 to 40,000 respirators, and its location is to be determined after consultation with local authorities. In the event of an emergency, respirators would be unpacked at the store centres, prepared for use, and issued to the public through distributing depots which would each handle about 4,000 respirators.skm_c45817021416012Card 38- Mobile Gas Vans

Home Office mobile gas vans, two of which are illustrated, are used for the testing of respirators and for the purpose of training men and women under the conditions of an actual gas attack. The vans are so built that a gas cloud can be put up in the body of the van; the white canopies at the back are airlocks to prevent the escape of the gas when the door of the van itself is opened. The picture shows a group undergoing training at Hendon Police College; the respirator in use is the service type.skm_c45817021416012-copy-copyCard 39- Civilian Anti-Gas School

The Civilian Anti-Gas Schools are provided by the Home Office. The first to be inaugurated is at Eastwood Park, Falfield, Glos., while there is another at The Hawkhills Easingwold, near York. The Schools train anti-gas instructors for the public service, for local authorities and others. Sixty students are taken at a time, and the course lasts two weeks. The picture shows postal workers undergoing training. Those on the left, wearing oilskin coats and Civilian Duty Respirators are women telephonists. The men on the right are being fitted with Service Respirators before going into the gas chamber.skm_c45817021416012-copy-8Card 40- Testing for Gas Contamination

The picture shows a member of a Decontamination Squad using an instrument for detecting if the ground has been contaminated with mustard gas. The instrument is painted at the end with a special paint which, when brought into contact with mustard gas, will turn a different colour. The man is shown wearing protective clothing and his Service Respirator, but as he is working after the raid is over, he is not wearing his steel helmet.skm_c45817021416010

ARP Cigarette Cards (Part 2)

Tonight we are looking at the next ten cards in the Air Raid Precautions set of Will’s cigarette cards, you can see the first post here.

Card 21 Light Trailer Fire-Pump

Under Fire Precautions schemes, the Home office is issuing to many local authorities light trailer fire-pumps of the type illustrated. This pump has the great advantage of being easily manœuvred; not only can it be towed behind any motor car, but it is also light enough to be manhandled. It is capable of delivering two useful fire-fighting streams of water, and can deliver 120 gallons per minute at a pressure of 80lb to the square inch. The pump unit can be unshipped from its chassis and carried to any convenient position where water is availableskm_c45817021416010-copy-6Card 22 Light Trailer Fire-Pump in Action

Air Raid Precautions schemes will include ample provision for emergency fire-fighting. The home Office is issuing to many local authorities light trailer fire-pumps, described on Card No. 21. The pump is here shown in action; it has been unshipped from the chassis on which it is usually carried for towing purposes, and is taking a supply of water from a garden pond, to which it has been carried by hand. The light trailer fire-pump can also work from a street mains supply, and is capable of delivering two useful fire-fighting streams of water.skm_c45817021416010-copy-5Card 23 Medium Trailer Fire-Pump

Medium trailer motor fire-pumps will be an important feature in emergency fire-brigade measures. These pumps are towed behind private cars or commercial vans ( in which the fire-men and additional fire-fighting gear may be carried), and can be manhandled over rough ground or debris impassable to ordinary fire-engines or motor cars. A pump of this type will give four good fire-fighting streams of water at high pressure.skm_c45817021416010-copy-4Card 24 Medium Trailer Fire-Pump in Action

Any scheme of Air Raid Precautions must include the provision of a great number of special fire-fighting appliances. Pumping units of the type illustrated will be required in large numbers for use under air raid conditions. They are specially designed for trailing behind motor cars or light lorries. Crews of 4 or 5 trained firemen are required to man these fire-pumps, which are capable of delivering two or more streams of water at high pressure on to a fire.skm_c45817021416010-copy-3Card 25 Emergency Heavy Pump Unit

The illustration shows a high-powered emergency fire-pump, carrying a telescopic ladder. This unit, which has been designed by the Home Office, is capable of delivering over 1,000 gallons of water a minute at high pressure, and is able to supply a number of good fire-fighting streams. There is accommodation on the unit for both crew and necessary fire-fighting gear. The chassis on which the pump is mounted is extremely mobile, and can be manœuvred in a very small space.skm_c45817021416010-copy-2Card 26 Hose-Laying Lorry

For laying long lines of delivery hose, such as may be necessary at large fires for the purpose of utilising distant water supplies, a special motor appliance is used. The lengths of hose contained in the appliance are joined together and specially packed as shown in the illustration, so that they pay out in one or more continuous lines as the appliance is driven ahead.skm_c45817021416010-copy-8Card 27 The Civilian Respirator

This respirator consists of a face-piece, to which is attached by means of a rubber band a metal box containing filters which absorb all known war gases. The face-piece is held in position by means of web straps fitting around the head. When the respirator is properly fitted and the straps adjusted, it completely protects the eyes, nose, mouth and lungs. The strap should be pinned at the right tension, so that the respirator can be slipped on in an instant. This respirator will be issued free to the public.skm_c45817021416010-copy-7Card 28 The Civilian Respirator- How to Adjust it

Great care must be taken to see that the respirator is correctly fitted and adjusted, in order that a supply of pure air, quite free from gas, is ensured for breathing. The respirator is made so that if fits closely round the face, and is provided with adjustable straps to hold it in the correct position. It is important that the respirator be tried on and the straps properly adjusted to the requirements of the wearer (see picture), so that it may be put on at a moment’s notice.skm_c45817021416012-copy-2Card 29 The Civilian Respirator- How to Remove it

The pictures shows the RIGHT way to take off a Civilian Respirator. This should be done by slipping the head harness forward from the back of the head. It is important that the respirator should be taken off in this way. The WRONG way to take it off is by taking hold of the metal box containing the filters and pulling the face-piece off by the chin. By this method there is a danger of bending and cracking the transparent window. If this window is cracked, the respirator is useless.skm_c45817021416012-copy-4Card 30 The Civilian Duty Respirator

This respirator is of stronger construction than the civilian respirator and is intended for those who might have to work in the presence of gas and could not go to a gas-protected refuge room. The respirator protects the eyes, nose, mouth and lungs against all known war-gasses. The face-piece is of moulded rubber, and the eye-pieces are of strong glass. There is an outlet valve opposite the nose; the protuberance at the side of the face-piece can be used to fit a microphone for speaking on the telephone.skm_c45817021416012-copy-3

ARP Cigarette Cards (Part 1)

We have looked at cigarette cards in the past on the blog, and how obsessively they were collected by many in the interwar period. Manufacturers were always looking for new topics to cover on their cards, and in the late 1930s ARP procedures became a very popular subject, no doubt with tacit approval from government who were keen that as many British subjects as possible were aware of what they could do to help themselves in the case of an attack on the civilian population. One of the most common sets was produced by Wills and although I have only thirty of the fifty cards, we are going to take a look at them in detail. Due to the number of cards, this will be split over three posts, each looking at just ten of the cards, the text accompanying each comes from the rear of the card.

Card 1   Choosing your Refuge Room

The picture shows the rooms which should be chosen in typical houses as air raid refuge rooms. A cellar or basement is best of all. In a small house where there is no cellar of basement, the ground floor will be safest, because top floors are always to be avoided on account of the risk from small incendiary bombs. The fewer windows in external walls in a refuge room, the better, and a room of which the window is flanked by a building or a strong wall is more advantageous than one having a completely exposed window.skm_c45817021416021-copy-7Card 2 Rendering your refuge room gas-proof

The red arrows in the picture show the danger points at which gas may enter; these must be sealed as instructed below. Cracks in ceilings and walls should be filled in with putty or pasted over with paper. Cracks between floorboards, round the skirting or where pipes pass through the walls should be filled in with pulp made of sodden newspaper. All ventilators and fireplaces should be stopped up with paper or rags. Windows should be wedged firmly to keep them tight, the frames sealed around with gummed strip or paper, and any broken panes boarded in or pasted over with strong paper. The cracks round doors should be covered with stout paper and the keyhole plugged.skm_c45817021416021-copy-8Card 3 Making a door gas-proof

A carpet or blanket should be fixed over the door opening as shown in the illustration. This should be kept wet and at least twelve inches allowed to trail on the floor. Such an arrangement reduces the risk of gas when the door is opened for use. In addition, if there is a large crevice under the door, a wooden strip covered in felt should be nailed to the floor to make a gas proof joint. The keyhole and all cracks must be stopped up.skm_c45817021416021-copy-9Card 4 Window protection

This illustration shows three methods of preventing fragments of glass flying round a room when the window is damaged by a bomb explosion. (A) By two layers of transparent wrapping material gummed all over the inside of the glass. This admits light. (B) By mosquito netting gummed to the glass. (C) By stout paper pasted on the glass. Should the glass eb completely shattered, then attach by means of thumbscrews to the inside of the window, a frame (D) in which there are two thicknesses of blanket with ½ in. mesh wire netting on each side. Another simple method is represented by a curtain (E) which is let down and fixed around the edges by strips of wood nailed to the window frame.skm_c45817021416021-copyCard 5 Window protection against blast.

Ordinary blast may be shattered by the blast effects of high explosive bombs, but there are various substitutes for ordinary glass that are more resistant. The left hand panes in the picture are of a specially strengthened glass and the right-hand panes are of non-inflammable transparent celluloid 1/10 in. thick reinforced on the inside by ½ in. mesh wire netting. Both offer considerable resistance to blast pressure, although they may be penetrated by steel splinters form bombs. If this should occur, the holes and cracks in the damaged pane should at once be pasted over with stout paper to make the pane gas-proof.skm_c45817021416021Card 6 Types of splinter-proof wall

In the event of an air raid, steel splinters and fragments form high explosive bombs may cause many casualties. It is therefore important to take protective measures against such fragments. The picture shows three types of wall (including methods of improvisation) which will afford protection. The first (right) is brick 13 ½ inch thick. The second (centre) consists of broken brick, rubble or shingle 2 ft. thick between corrugated iron sheets. The third (left) consists of these materials in boxes.skm_c45817021416021-copy-2Card 7 Protecting your windows- a sandbag defence

Walls of sandbags or sacks filled with earth, sand etc., are the best protection for window openings of refuge rooms on the ground floor. The picture shows how this should be done. Walls should be 2ft 6in thick at the top and should overlap the window opening by at least 12 in all round; the base should be wider to prevent the wall collapsing. Such a wall will keep out splinters from high explosive bombs and protect the glass of the window from being shattered by blast. The window must still be sealed against gas.skm_c45817021416021-copy-3Card 8 Equipping your refuge room (A)

Having chosen your refuge room and rendered it gas-proof, you should furnish it with the following articles: Table and chairs. Gum and paper for sealing windows and cracks. Tinned food and a tin to contain bread etc. Plates, cups, knives, forks etc. Books, writing materials, cards etc. to pass the time with. Wireless set, gramophone, etc.skm_c45817021416021-copy-4Card 9 Equipping your refuge room (B)

In addition to those listed on Card No 8. your refuge room should also contain the following articles: Washstand and basin, towels, soap etc. Plenty of drinking water in jugs for drinking, washing, fire-fighting etc. Chamber pots, toilet paper, disinfectant. A simple hand pump for fire-fighting. A box of sand with a shovel. Overcoats, rugs etc. for warmth. Mattress to lie on. Gum boots and mackintosh to go out in after a raid.skm_c45817021416021-copy-5Card 10 A garden dug-out

The picture shows a dug-out which is gas-proof and will give protection from blast and splinters from high explosive bombs. The excavation is in the form of a trench 7 ft. deep and 6 ft. wide at the top and 4 ft. wide at the bottom. The earth sides are supported by corrugated iron sheets held in place by uprights as shown in the picture. The roof consists of corrugated iron sheets resting on wooden joists laid across the excavation. Inside the entrance is an air lock formed by 2 gas curtains. Outside the dugout, steps lead down from one side to the entrance.skm_c45817021416021-copy-6

RAF India Cigarette Case

India has been rightly famous for its brass trinkets for many centuries. Craftsmen in the sub-continent can produce many elegant and richly decorated items with the most basic of tools. These objects have been popular souvenir items since the British first landed in the region in the seventeenth century. By the early twentieth century a cigarette case was a very popular gift to buy, especially by soldiers who had limited access to markets and indeed cash to pay for things. Cigarette packets of the day were flimsy, and with everyone smoking a metal case to safely hold and protect a smoker’s cigarettes was a safe bet as a gift. They were also easy to post due to their small size, fairly cheap to buy and as in this example could be highly decorated:imageThis cigarette case is decorated with an engraving of what I believe to be an Ibis, standing in a river. The inside of the case has space for the cigarettes, which are held in with a simple piece of elastic:imageWhat makes this case particularly nice though is the inscription on the inside:imageThis reads “To my brother Will with best wishes from Sgt. George Goodswen, RAF India”. The RAF had a presence in India from as early as 1913 and during the 1920s and 1930s saw extensive service on the North West Frontier. The use of bombers to take out tribal villages was welcomed by London as they were cheaper than conventional ground forces. The nascent RAF also encouraged their use as it helped justify their own existence in the financially constrained inter war period. The actual results of the air war on rebellious tribesmen is less clear and it seems whilst they had a terrifying effect on the natives, they did not actually achieve very much that was concrete due to the primitive nature of aircraft and bombing at this time.