Category Archives: Documents

Cawnpore Etching

This week’s image dates back to the nineteenth century and is a fine etching of a group of Highlanders storming the guns at Cawnpore during the Indian Mutiny:SKM_C45817022215110In the mid nineteenth century printed etchings gave a way for art to be enjoyed by the masses. Photography was still in its infancy and true paintings were beyond the pocket of most. Etchings could be mass produced and were very affordable. The more wealthy had them framed and hung on the wall, emulating the paintings of the wealthy. The poor decorated their houses by pulling the etchings from magazines and sticking them to the walls, much like the posters of today. Most of these etchings were in fact copies of actual paintings, the engraver’s skill being to translate this image onto metal for reproduction. Consequently some etchings are crude, others like this one are remarkably detailed. As well as scenes from history and famous people, current events and especially British military victories particularly appealed to the Victorians. This particular engraving dates to 1860 and judging by the large number of copies for sale online was a very popular print.

The following stirring fictionalised account of the attack by the 78th Highlanders comes from VA Stuart’s book Massacre at Cawnpore:

The Highlanders of the 78th, led by their pipers, hurled themselves at the enemy positions, the sun glinting on the bright steel of their ferociously jabbing bayonets. The riflemen of the 64th flattened themselves to the ground, then rose, as one man, to advance firing. The 84th, with memories of comrades who had defended the Cawnpore entrenchment, took guns at bayonet point and neither they nor the Sikhs who fought beside them, gave quarter to any gunner who had the temerity to stand by his gun. In their famous blue caps and “dirty” shirts, the young fusiliers fought grimly…they had Renaud, their commander, to avenge and they had brought in blood, the right to call themselves veterans.SKM_C45817022215110 - CopyAnd always the order was “Forward!” Shells burst and round shot and grape thinned the advancing ranks; a 24-pounder held them until it was blown up by Maude’s guns from the flank; then a howitzer from the enemy centre ranged on the charging 78th, forcing them to take cover behind a causeway carrying the road.

Havelock himself rallied them, his sword held high above his head as a storm of shot and shell fell about him. “Another charge like that wins the day, 78th!” he told them and the red coated line re-formed at his bidding and stormed the howitzer’s emplacement, their pipes keening above the noise of battle and the shouts and oaths of the weary, sweating Highlanders.SKM_C45817022215110 - Copy (2)

South Atlantic Fund First Day Cover

On 15th July 1982 a charity called ‘The South Atlantic Fund’ was constituted to raise money to aid the victims of the war in the Falkland Islands and their families. By Autumn 1982 a sum of £11 million had been raised and one of those contributing to the fund was the Royal Mail who issued a special first day cover to raise money:SKM_C45817070608230Fortuitously the Royal Mail had issued a set of stamps based on famous naval personalities from history on 16th June, which provided a suitable set of stamps to display on the cover:SKM_C45817070608230 - CopyA special envelope was printed for the South Atlantic Fund, with a design incorporating the White Ensign and the silhouette of a frigate:SKM_C45817070608230 - Copy (2)Inside the envelope is a card giving details of the charity and how much money the Royal Mail was aiming to collect:SKM_C45817070608230 - Copy (3)Alan Feinstein, Director of Public Relations at The Post Office wrote to the Daily Mail on 7th June 1982 explaining:

Mrs Such (Letters) will be pleased to learn that the Post Office will be offering for sale a million special pictorial envelopes with a maritime theme to boost the South Atlantic Fund by a minimum of £100,000.

They will go on sale at most post offices from June 28 until July 2, following the issue on June 16 of our planned Maritime Heritage stamps planned more than two years ago to celebrate the English Tourist Board’s Maritime Heritage Year.

The Post Office is guaranteeing a £100,000 minimum donation from the sale of the special envelope and the stamps bought for them, and any surplus will also go to the fund.

A special advert was taken out in the national press to advertise the covers:DMHA-1982-0628-0024-FSadly I have been unable to find out the exact amount of money raised by the sale of these covers, but judging by how common they are I suspect a lot were sold!

Active Service ‘Privilege’ Envelope

Tonight we have a small envelope with an interesting story. From the Great War onwards soldiers were given one free ‘Privilege’ envelope a week. This allowed them to send private correspondence home without being censored. The system worked on trust, and a random selection would be checked to ensure nothing sensitive was being sent out- soldiers losing the right to the envelopes if they divulged sensitive information. As only one envelope was allowed a week, soldiers tended to put multiple letters inside, with the recipient forwarding them on to others. The system continued into the Second World War, with a buff envelope with green lettering marked on it. This envelope however is rather different from the norm:SKM_C45817060611220The ‘privilege’ part of the envelope has been obliterated with a large black stamp:SKM_C45817060611220 - CopyThis suggests that the stock of normal envelopes for mail that would be censored had run out and these were over marked to remove the privilege status. The recipient’s name and address is filled out on the right hand side of the envelope, here to a Private F W Brown:SKM_C45817060611220 - Copy (2)These envelopes remained in use into the 1950s as recalled by one ex-serviceman:

This was all we were allowed to use for about three months in 1956 prior to and during the Suez invasion. Most of the men that I served with still have them as we thought that no letter was better than these things. Mind you some of this could have been our fault as all letters prior to this had to be put into the company office unsealed to be censored. Now on standing orders when this instruction came out it informed us that what we wrote would remain confidential as long it is had no military references in them, and would never be commented on by the officers censoring the mail. Well we had to put all this to the test so we spoke about our platoon officer w#nking himself silly and one of the others being so daft he could not find his back side with both hands. Well as quick as shot they were down in the lines bawling out the men who had written these letters, only to find that complaints were put in against them for breaching Company Orders. So they refused to censor the letters and we got was the Field Post Cards for months on end. Ain’t life fun in the Army

RAF Aircraft Cigarette Cards Part 4

Tonight we have the penultimate part of our series covering the RAF Aircraft cigarette cards set.

Card 31- Short “Sunderland” Flying Boat

The latest type of general purpose flying boat to go into service with the Royal Air Force. It is a military development of the now well-known Short “Empire” class which is widely used by Imperial Airways. Four Bristol “Pegasus” engines are fitted and although it is not permissible to divulge details of performance, it may be stated that it has a much superior performance to any similar type in service use. The “Sunderland” has a wing span of 113 feet 9 inches and a length of 85 feet 4 inches. There is a crew of 6.SKM_C45817060207581SKM_C45817060207581 - Copy

Card 32- Supermarine “Scapa” Flying Boat

This is a reconnaissance flying boat, developed from the “Southampton” and is built by Supermarine Aviation (Vickers) Ltd. It is powered with two Rolls-Royce “Kestrel” engines of 525 h.p. each, and has a wing span of 75 feet and length of 52 feet 6 inches. To fit it for its main function of searching the seas, it has a wide range- 1,025 miles, and a moderate speed of 143 m.p.h. It carries a crew of 5, including the pilot. The “Scapa” plays an important part in coastal defence. Because of the “Scapa’s” long range, special attention has been paid to its equipment with a view to the comfort of the crew.SKM_C45817060207581SKM_C45817060207581 - Copy (2)

Card 33- Supermarine “Stranraer” Reconnaissance Flying Boat

A twin engine long range general purpose flying boat constructed by a company with wide experience of this type. It is an unequal-span biplane powered by two Bristol “Pegasus X” 9-cylindar radial air-cooled engines of over 900 h.p. The maximum speed is 165 m.p.h and the normal range 1,000 miles, although this may be increased by the fitting of auxiliary tanks under the lower wings. Provision is made for the carriage of a spare engine. Sleeping quarters for the crew, food and water storage, and facilities for cooking are arranged for. The “Stranraer” has a wing span of 85 feet and a length of 54 feet 10 inches.SKM_C45817060207581SKM_C45817060207581 - Copy (3)

Card 34- Supermarine “Walrus” Amphibian

This type of ‘plane is normally carried on capital ships and cruisers, from which it can be catapulted. It is the largest and heaviest R.A.F. aircraft which can be launched by this means. The “Walrus” is built by Supermarine Aviation (Vickers) Ltd., and fitted with a Bristol “Pegasus” 580/600 h.p. engine. The wing span is 45.8 feet, but the wings fold to a span of a little over 17 feet for storage on board ship. The speed of the “Walrus” is reckoned in knots, the top speed being 122, about 140 m.p.h. Landing wheels, which retract into the wing, enable the aircraft to land on the ground when required.SKM_C45817061407560 - Copy

Card 35- Vickers “Vincent” General Purpose Aircraft

This general purpose biplane is similar in design to the “Vildebeest”, except for a reduction in the toal weight. Like the “Vildebeest” it is built by Vickers and is fitted with a Bristol “Pegasus” engine. It has a higher top speed and wider range- 142 m.p.h. and 620 miles respectively- than the “Vildebeest”. The “Vincent” is employed almost wholly on overseas service, for which it is found to be especially suitable. It has taken part in many long distance inter-Command flights in the Middle East. The “Vincent” carries a crew of 2.SKM_C45817061407560 - Copy (2)

Card 36- Vickers “Wellesley” General Purpose Aircraft.

This low-wing monoplane is the first aircraft constructed on the “Geodetic” principle to have been put into quantity production for the Royal Air Force. It is a Vickers Aviation product and is fitted with an air cooled 9-cylinder Bristol “Pegasus” engine developing 950 h.p. The fuselage is of oval-section metal structure and the wing span is 74 ½ feet. The “Wellesley” attains a top-speed of 228 m.p.h. and has a range of over 1,300 miles at normal cruising speed. There are enclosed cockpits for pilot and observer, with intercommunication. The aircraft mounts 2 machine-guns.SKM_C45817061407560 - Copy (3)

Card 37- Westland “Wapiti” General Purpose Aircraft

An aeroplane designed for general purpose and Army co-operation work. It is fitted with a Bristol “Jupiter VIII. F” engine developing 460 h.p. at 4,000 feet. A crew of 2 is carried. The “Wapiti’s” maximum speed is 128.5 m.p.h. and its range 305 miles. This type has been extensively used overseas, and was at one time the standard type in the Australian and South African Air Forces. The dimensions are: wing span 46 feet 5 inches, length 32 feet 6 inches and height 11 feet 10 inches.SKM_C45817061407560 - Copy (4)

Card 38- Avro “Anson” General Reconnaissance Aircraft

This is a military development of the Avro 652 commercial monoplane, and is designed for coastal reconnaissance duties. A low-wing monoplane with mechanically operated retractable undercarriage, the “Anson” carries a crew of 4, has a bomb compartment in the nose, compartments for the navigator and wireless operator, and a gun turret in the top decking of the fuselage. The constructors are A. V. Roe & Co. Ltd., and the two Armstrong Siddley “Cheetah IX” engines produce a top speed of 188.5 m.p.h. The “Anson” has a wing span of 56 feet 6 inches and a length of 42 feet 3 inches.SKM_C45817061407560 - Copy (5)

Card 39- Fairey “Swordfish” Torpedo Spotter Reconnaissance Aircraft

The type allocated to the Fleet Air Arm. It is fitted with a Bristol “Pegasus” air cooled engine developing 690 h.p. The armament consists of 2 machine guns. A load of bombs is carried or, alternatively,an 18-inch torpedo. The “Swordfish” has a maximum speed of 154 m.p.h. and a duration of flight of 5.7 hours. The wing span is 45 feet 6 inches but the wings fold to 17 feet 3 inches for storage aboard ship. Owing to its adaptability, this type is of great use in naval warfare.SKM_C45817061407560 - Copy (6)

Card 40-Hawker “Osprey” IV Torpedo Spotter Reconnaissance Aircraft

This is a two seater Fleet spotter reconnaissance aircraft built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd., and is fitted with a Rolls-Royce “Kestrel V” water-cooled engine of 640 h.p. The construction is mainly stainless steel and the fuselage fabric-covered. The wing span is 37 feet but the wings fold for carriage on board ship. The aircraft can be employed either as a landplane or seaplane, the land undercarriage being interchangeable with twin single-step floats. A top speed of 175.5 m.p.h is attained by the “Osprey” and its endurance at cruising speed at 10,000 feet is about 2 ½ hours.SKM_C45817061407561 - Copy

RAF Aircraft Cigarette Cards Part 3

Tonight we come to the third of our five posts covering the Player’s cigarette card series “Aircraft of the Royal Air Force”. This week the cards focus mainly on fighter aircraft.

No. 21- Gloster “Gauntlet” Fighter

This is a biplane fighter built by the Gloster Aircraft Co. Ltd., and fitted with a Bristol “Mercury” air-cooled engine which develops 645 h.p. at a high altitude. The wings are “staggered”, the upper wing being mounted further forward than the lower. The maximum speed is 230 m.p.h. 2 machine guns are mounted on the sides of the fuselage. The Gloster “Gauntlet” has a wing span of 32 feet 10 inches, a length of 26 feet 2 inches and a height of 10 feet 2 inchesSKM_C45817052508060No 22.- Gloster “Gladiator “ Fighter

An all metal biplane fighter and a development of the earlier “Gauntlet” being faster and more heavily armed. It is fitted with a Bristol “Mercury IX” engine which develops 840 h.p. at 12,500 feet. The single-strut undercarriage is an unusual feature. The “Gladiator” has a wing span of 32 feet 3 inches- 7 inches less that the “Gauntlet”- and attains a maximum speed of 255 m.p.h. The armament consists of 4 machine guns, 2 in the fuselage and 2 in the wings.SKM_C45817060207580No 23.- Gloster Unnamed Fighter

This single seater fighter, built by the Gloster Aircraft Co., and fitted with a Bristol “Mercury IX” or “Perseus” engine, is of recent introduction and its performance figures are still secret. It is a low-wing monoplane with monocoque fuselage. The construction is all metal and the covering metal-stressed skin throughout, except for fabric covered rudder, elevators and ailerons. The fin and rudder are placed noticeably further forward, relative to the tail plane, than is usual. The aircraft has a wing span of 38 feet 2 inches and a length of 31 feet.SKM_C45817060207580 - CopyNo 24.- Hawker “Demon” Fighter

Built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd., and fitted with a Rolls-Royce “Kestrel V” engine developing 575/600 h.p. at 11,000 feet, this is the only two-seater fighter in service with the exception of a development of the service type “Demon I (turret)”. The “Demon” is a biplane with a wing span of slightly more than 37 feet, which is somewhat wider than is general in aircraft of this type. The “Demon” develops a top speed of about 182 m.p.h. but its range is no less than 404 miles. The design, apart from the two-seater construction, follows conventional lines. The rear cockpit accommodates the gunner.SKM_C45817060207580 - Copy (2)No 25.- Hawker “Demon I (Turret)” Fighter

Structurally this aeroplane is identical with the normal “Demon” two-seater fighter, but in place of the rear gunner’s cockpit a power-operated turret is installed. The engine is a Rolls-Royce “Kestrel V” (derated) 12-Cylinder Vee liquid-cooled engine giving a maximum output of 584 h.p. The majority of the two-seater fighter squadrons of the Royal Air Force are now equipped with this aircraft. The maximum speed is 180 m.p.h. at 20,000 feet. The wing span is 37 feet 3 inches, length 29 feet 6 inches and height 10 feet 9 inches.SKM_C45817060207580 - Copy (3)No 26.- Hawker “Fury” Fighter

This aptly named single-seater fighter is built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd., and fitted with a Rolls-Royce “Kestrel” engine developing 480 h.p. at 11,500 feet. The construction is composite, being partly wood and partly metal. The airscrew is wood. The under-carriage is of a conventional v-type with Oleo legs and tubular axle. The “Fury”, which has a high degree of manoeuvrability, attains a speed of 223 m.p.h at 15,000 feet and lands at 62.5 m.p.h. A development of the type is the “Fury II” which mounts a “Kestrel VI” engine.SKM_C45817060207580 - Copy (4)No 27.- Hawker “Hurricane” Fighter

This single-seater fighter is probably the most discussed type now in service. A “Hurricane” recently covered the 327 miles from Edinburgh to Northolt in 48 minutes. The type combines high speed with ease of manoeuvre and slow landing, and the beautifully streamlined design gives an impression of power that is confirmed by the machine’s performance. The “Hurricane” is a low wing cantilever monoplane with a 40-feet wing span, built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. It is fitted with a Rolls-Royce “Merlin” engine developing 1,050 h.p. The armament consists of 8 machine guns, mounted 4 in each wing.SKM_C45817060207580 - Copy (5)No 28.- Supermarine “Spitfire I” Fighter

A single seater fighter monoplane in which many of the lessons learned by Supermarine Aviation (Vickers) Lt., in producing high-speed seaplanes for the Schneider Trophy Contests, have been incorporated. All-metal stressed skin construction has been used. The pilot’s cockpit is enclosed and a retractable undercarriage is fitted. Power is provided by a Rolls-Royce “Merlin” 12-cylinder liquid-cooled engine, and the “Spitfire” has been claimed to be the fastest military aeroplane in the world. Performance figures are not available. The aircraft has a wing span of 37 feet and a length of 30 feet.SKM_C45817060207581 - CopyNo 29.- Saro “London” Flying Boat

Saunders Roe are the builders of this imposing open-sea reconnaissance flying boat, which is fitted with two Bristol “Pegasus” engines. The “London” is a sesquiplane biplane of metal construction and has fabric covered wings. Wing-tip floats are fitted to the bottom plane. A beaching chassis, consisting of two large disc wheels and a tail-trolley, enables the “London” to be hauled up the slipway. There are gun positions in the nose, amidships and in the tail. The range of the “London” is 880 sea miles and it carries a crew of 5 (pilot, navigator and 3 gunners). The wing span is 80 feet and length 56 feet 6 inches.SKM_C45817060207581 - Copy (2)No 30.- Short “Singapore III” Flying Boat

This metal hull biplane, built by Short Bros. Ltd., and fitted with 4 Rolls-Royce “Kestrel” engines is the third of the “Singapore” series and is designed for reconnaissance work. The engines are mounted tandem between the wings, the lower wing being fitted with wing-tip floats for lateral stabilisation. There are machine-gun mountings at the bow, centre and tail. The aircraft develops a top-speed of 118 knots (136 m.p.h.), has a range of 865 sea miles and carries a crew of 6. It is a sesquiplane, i.e. the wings are of unequal span. The crew’s quarters have bunks, cooking apparatus, work bench and stowage for dinghies.SKM_C45817060207581 - Copy (3)

RAF Aircraft Cigarette Cards Part 2

We continue our look at the 1938 Player’s Cigarette Card set ‘Aircraft of the Royal Air Force’ with cards 11-20 tonight. These cards focus on bombers and whilst one or two are very familiar today, most of these designs have long been forgotten. As ever the captions are the original wording printed on the back of each card.

No. 11- Fairey “Battle” Bomber

Produced by the Fairey Aviation Co., Ltd., this aircraft is a low wing monoplane bomber with monocoque fuselage and metal-skinned wing and tail surfaces. A feature of the fuselage is the continuous transparent fairing over the cockpits which accommodate the crew of 2. A fixed machine gun is mounted in the starboard wing and a free gun in the rear cockpit. The power unit is a Roll-Royce “merlin” super-charged engine. The “Battle” has a top speed of about 257 M.p.h. and a normal range of approximately 1,000 miles. The wing span is 54 feet and the length is 42 feet 4 ½ inches.No. 12- Fairey “Gordon” Bomber

An aircraft which may be employed for either general purpose or bombing duties and although no longer in squadron use at home, it still forms the equipment of certain overseas units. It is also used for towing sleeve targets at Armament Trainig Stations in this country. The ‘plane is fitted with an Armstrong Siddeley “Panther” 14-cylinder double-row radial air-cooled engine of over 500 h.p. The maximum speed is in the region of 140 m.p.h. There is a pilot and one other. The Fairey “Gordon” has a wing span of 45 feet 8 ½ inches, a length of 34 feet 2 ½ inches and a height of 10 feet 11 inches.No 13.- Fairey “Hendon” Bomber

Constructed by the Fairey Avaiation Co., Ltd., and mounting two Rolls Royce “Kestrel VI” engines of 600 h.p. each. The “Hendon” is an all-metal low-wing cantilever monoplane of clean design. The wing span is 101 feet 9 inches and the length 60 feet 9 inches. A separate dual-control unit, which can be readily fitted, is included in the equipment. A searchlight to facilitate night landing is mounted on the aircraft which carries a crew of 4 including the pilot. The “Hendon” has a range of 800 miles and a speed ranging from 129 m.p.h. at 3,000 feet to 152 m.p.h. at 12,000 feet. The landing speed is only 55 m.p.h. There are three gun positions.No 14.- Fairey Unnamed Bomber (Fulmar)

This is a lo wing monoplane bomber, built by the Fiary Avaiation Co., Ltd., and fitted with a RollS Royce “Merlin” engine. It has not yet been named. It is a two-seater aircraft with monocoque fuselage, metal skinned wing and tail surface, and fabric covered control surfaces. There is a retractable Oleo-pneumatic undercarriage. The wing span is 47 feet 4 inches. This aircraft is similar in construction to the Fairey “Battle”, but is smaller in size and weight and should therefore improve substantially on the “Battle’s” performance.No 15.- Handley Page “Hampden” Bomber

Some of the details of this recent bomber are still secret. It is designed by Handley Page Ltd., and mounts two Bristol “Pegasus XX” engines. The construction is all metal with totally enclosed stations for the crew of 4. The undercarriage and tail wheel are retractable and there are automatic wing slots and twin fins and rudders. The wing span is 69 feet 4 inches and the length 52 feet 5 inches. The wings taper noticeably in chord and thickness. There are 3 machine-gun positions- one in the nose, one above the fuselage and one below the fuselage, an unusual position made possible by the break in the lower fuselage line.No. 16- Handley Page “Harrow” Bomber

This aircraft is the largest bomber at present in service, having a wing span of 88 feet 5 inches. It is built by Handley Page Lt., and mounts two Bristol “Pegasus” engines of 850 h.p. A high-wing monoplane of all-metal construction, its wing and fuselage are fabric covered, the whole being camouflage finished. The crew of 5 includes 2 pilots. The “Harrow” has a speed of 190 m.p.h. and a range of approximately 1,250 miles at normal cruising speed. Among other features of the “Harrow” are automatic wing slots and covered in cockpits.No. 17- Handley Page “Heyford” Bomber

This aircraft is a biplane bomber of all metal construction. The fuselage is built in a high position directly under the top plane, thus giving a good view for the pilot and bomb aimer. The two engines are Rolls-Royce “Kestrels” of 480 h.p. each. A crew of 4 is carried and the armament consists of 3 machine guns on rotatable mountings. The “Heyford” has a maximum speed of 142 m.p.h. and its dimensions are wing span 75 feet, length 58 feet and height 17 feet 6 inches.No. 18- Hawker “Hind” Bomber

The design of this biplane bomber is essentially that of the earlier “Hart” of which it is a development. It is fitted with a Roll-Royce “Kestrel” supercharged engine giving a maximum output of 640 h.p. The “Hind” carries a crew of 2, mounts a machine gun, firing forward, and also a lewis gun; it has a maximum speed of 192.2 m.p.h. and a range of 393 miles. It is small, as bomber go, the dimensions being; wing span 37 feet 3 inches, length 29 feet 7 inches and height 10 feet 7 inches. The construction is all metal of steel and duralinium with fabric covering. The “Hind” is one of the few types of biplane bomber now in service.No. 19- Vickers “Vildebeest” Torpedo Bomber

Of all-metal construction, this biplane is a dual-purpose type, designed to carry either bombs or marine torpedoes. It is used for coastal defence. The power unit is a Bristol “Pegasus” of 580 h.p. at 5,000 feet. The “Vildebeest” has the relatively low maximum speed of 131.5 m.p.h., but its range is no less than 566 miles. The service load is 2,704 lb. including the crew. The dimensions are: wing span 49 feet, length 36 feet and height 15 feet 10 inches. A crew of 2 is carried, but provision is made for carrying an additional member when service conditions require it.No. 20- Vickers “Wellington I” Bomber

Of “Geodetic” construction, this aircraft is the first twin-engined machine to be built utilising this system, and is the subject of a large Air Ministry order. Performance figures are still secret, but it is believed that the range will be outstanding, and the maximum speed very high for an aircraft of this type. It is of all metal construction, and features of the design are the retractable undercarriage, trailing edge flaps and trimming tabs on elevators and rudder. Engines may be either Bristol “Pegasus” of “Hercules” or Rolls-Royce “Merlin”. A crew of 4 is carried. The wing span is 86 feet and length 60 feet 9 inches.

Aircraft of the Royal Airforce Cigarette Card Album (Part 1)

Tonight we start a five part series looking at a set of cigarette cards published in 1938 by Players covering the aircraft of the Royal Air Force:This set is particularly interesting as it includes many aircraft that would have been withdrawn by the outbreak of war; biplanes and high wing bombers all saw very limited service in World War Two. It also has the most up to date fighters such as the Spitfire and hurricane so it is an interesting snap shot into a transitional period in the Royal Air Force. The captions below come from the backs of the cards and are period to the illustrations.

No 1. The Airspeed Envoy of The King’s Flight

Chosen as the equipment of the King’s Flight, this aircraft is a low-wing twin-engined monoplane. The engines are Armstrong Siddeley “Cheetah IX” 7-cylindar air-cooled radials of 350 h.p. giving a maximum speed of 203 m.p.h. and a normal cruising speed of about 170 m.p.h. The colours in which this aircraft is finished are those of the Brigade of Guards. The ‘plane was used recently to convey His Majesty on a tour of four R.A.F. stations and in addition has been frequently employed by other members of the Royal Family. It has a wing span of 52 feet 4 inches and a length of 34 feet 6 inches.No 2. Avro “Rota” Army Co-Operation Autogiro Aircraft.

A two-seater autogiro fitted with dual control. Certain of these aircraft have been supplied to Army co-operation squadrons of the Royal Air Force and are also used at the School of Army Co-operation. The aircraft has a short take-off run and lands almost vertically. An Armstrong Siddeley “Civet” radial air-cooled engine is fitted and gives the aircraft a maximum speed of about 100 m.p.h. The “Rota” has a length of 19 feet 8 ½ inches and is 11 feet 1 inch in height: The rotor diameter is 37 feet.No 3. Hawker “Audax” Army Co-Operation Aircraft

Built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd., this biplane of all metal construction is an Army co-operation machine. It is fitted with a Roll-Royce “Kestrel” engine of 480 h.p. and carries a crew of 2. The maximum speed is 169 m.p.h. It is specially designed and equipped for Army co-operation work and is fitted with wireless and electrical apparatus and a message pick-up hook. The dimensions are: wing span 37 feet 3 inches, length 29 feet 7 inches and height 10 feet 7 inches.No 4. Hawker “Hector” Army Co-Operation Aircraft

Like the “Audax” and the more recent “Lysander”, the “Hector” is an Army co-operation aircraft. It is a biplane of all metal construction with a wing span of 37 feet and carries a crew of 2. The top speed is 191 m.p.h. The “Hector” is built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd, and the engine is a Napier “Dagger III” . The “Dagger” is an unusual engine design, having 24 cylinders cast in rows of 6, an arrangement which is known as the H type. It has two crankshafts geared together to drive the airscrew shaft.No 5. Westland “Lysander” Army Co-Operation Aircraft

The “ Lysander” built by Westland Aircraft Ltd., and fitted with a Bristol “Mercury XII” engine, is designed for Army co-operation work. It is a high-wing monoplane of all-metal construction, mounts 2 machine guns, and carries a crew of 2, including the pilot. The wing span is 50 feet, and this aircraft is the first type designed exclusively for Army co-operation duties, other aircraft having been developments of existent service types.No 6. Armstrong Whitworth “Whitley” Bomber

This is a low-wing cabin monoplane bomber of all metal construction with a wing span of 84 feet. The “Whitley” is provided with enclosed gun-turrets at nose and tail, in addition to a downward-firing turret within the body, and has retractable undercarriage. It is built by the Sir W.G. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft Co., and fitted with two Armstrong Siddeley “Tiger VIII” of “IX” engines of 880 h.p. each. The “Whitley IV” is fitted with Rolls-Royce “Merlin” engines. There is accommodation for either 1 or 2 pilots and 3 or 4 other crew. The “Whitley” attains a speed of 192 m.p.h. and has a range of 1,500 miles.No 7. Blackburn “Skua” Dive Bomber Fighter

This dive-bomber fighter is a Blackburn product with a Bristol “Mercury IX” or “Perseus” engine. It is an all metal low wing monoplane with monocoque fuselage and retractable undercarriage, a notable feature being the tapered wing with rounded tip. The “Skua” is part of the equipment of the Fleet Air Arm and is a recent introduction. It is of interest that the “Perseus” is a sleeve valve engine and is the first engine of this type to go into general service use. The “Skua” will be allocated to aircraft carriers.No 8. Boulton Paul “Overstrand” Bomber

This aircraft is a development from the obsolete “Sidestrand”. It is a twin engine biplane bomber and is fitted with Bristol “Pegasus” engines of 590 h.p. each. A maximum speed of 150 m.p.h. is attained and the range is about 500 miles. The “Overstrand” mounts 3 machine guns, one of which is for defence against attack from below. A crew of 3 is carried. The dimensions are: wing span 72 feet, length 46 feet and height 15 feet 6 inches.No 9. Bristol “Blenheim” Bomber

A mid-wing monoplane bomber, mainly of metal construction, fitted with two Bristol “Mercury” engines with 3-bladed controllable-pitch airscrews. It normally carries a crew of 3. The armament consists of 2 machine-guns. The “Blenheim” has a retractable undercarriage and its dimensions are: wing span 56 feet 4 inches, length 39 feet 9 inches and height 9 feet 10 inches. The aircraft, which is a product of the Bristol Aeroplane Co., Ltd, attains a maximum speed of 279 m.p.h and has a range of 1000 miles with full load.No 10 Bristol “Bombay” Bomber Transport Aircraft

The performance figures of this new high-wing bomber transport are still secret. It is designed by Bristol Aeroplane Co., Ltd., and is equipped with two Bristol “Pegasus XX” engines. As a bomber the “Bombay” carries a crew of 4 but when used as a transport it carries a crew of 3 and has accommodation for 24 troops. It is of all-metal stressed skin construction, the engines being mounted in the wing which has a span of 96 feet. The enclosed gun turrets are placed in the nose and the tail, and there is intercommunication from end to end of the interior of the fuselage.