Category Archives: WW2

Hospital Underpants

Tonight I have one of those objects which seems really obvious at the outset, but has generated a lot of debate amongst collectors over the years. For a long time it was assumed that these blue underpants were for issue to female troops:imageHowever the consensus now seems to be that these underpants were actually for men and were issued to those recovering from injuries in hospital. Dressings and physical incapacity made it difficult to get underwear easily on and off some patients. These underpants are fastened at one side by cotton tapes that can be undone to make it easier to get them on or off:imageThe top tapes act as a drawstring around the waist, whilst the lower tapes help hold the pants secure. The Second World War saw great advances in medicine when it came to saving damaged limbs, and arms and legs that would have been previously amputated were now being saved, as reported in the Picture Post:

War is pointing the way. In the old days a surgeon lopped off a limb with a compound fracture, and then the patient made the best of it. One surgeon a hundred years ago is supposed to have cut off no fewer than 200 limbs in a single day; that is more than a modern surgeon amputates in the whole of his life, and today the Consultant in Orthopaedic Surgery to the Royal Air Force, Dr R Watson Jones of Liverpool, has reported that “in a series of Royal Air Force hospitals there was one amputation per 1,000 severe limb injuries, including infected wounds and compound fractures.” The wounded soldier, therefore, is easy in his mind on one score – the odds are heavy against him having to lose a limb. Further in war we cannot afford the wasteful practices of peace when a patient was treated for a fracture, discharged without any clear idea of his disability and how to treat it, and went to the courts to get compensation under the impression that his accident had made him a permanent cripple. The country needs sound men, not cripples.

With the greater number of soldiers with seriously injured legs recovering in hospital, specialist underwear would have been increasingly important. The dark blue colour is typical of hospital clothing- hospital blues and dark blue dressing gowns were also standard army issue. A simple white label is sewn onto the front of the underpants indicating they have a 34” waist and were made in 1943:imageAs is sometimes the case, I am struggling to find anything further on these- I can find no period sources or materials to indicate when they were introduced or declared obsolete, who was actually issued them or how they were received by patients or medical staff.


Toggle Rope

I must make a confession about tonight’s object. I was sold this toggle rope as an original, but I am not convinced- several others have looked at it and opinions are divided. Regardless of whether this is a modern copy or not, the toggle rope is an interesting object and worthy of further discussion.

Toggle ropes are pieces of rope, issued one per soldier, about six feet long:imageA loop is provided on one end:imageAnd a wooden toggle on the other:imageThis allows the ropes to be joined together by linking the toggle of one rope through the loop of the next:imageExtremely long ropes can then be quickly put together by combining each man’s ropes:imageThis simple tool could be invaluable and why it came to river crossings ropes were linked  together and a strong swimmer took the end across to the far shore. Here it was secured and those who were weaker swimmers, or indeed non swimmers, could drag themselves across the river. Quite complex structures such as rope bridges could be assembled from these ropes: imageDenis Roby trained as a Commando and recalls using toggle ropes in training:

The ‘death slide’ was a rope again, but this time sloping down at an alarming angle. A toggle rope, which was about 4 foot in length, a wooden handle one end and a loop at the other, it was used as a climbing aid among other good uses. Joined with others it could be used for scaling cliffs, but on this occasion we passed it over the single rope, one hand passed through the loop and the other on the handle then slid down the rope at an alarming speed, stopping by bracing your feet against the tree at the end, or fall in the river.

The toggle rope was also used to build a bridge over the river, very difficult to use because it swung to and fro with a mind of its own. This caused a lot of laughter, but two chaps slipped and fell through the ropes into the river and were swept away and later found quite some distance away. After that a grapple net was suspended as a safety measure.

Ropes were carried in a number of ways- they could be wrapped around the waist or the shoulders:imageAlternatively they could be coiled up and tucked into a piece of webbing:imageMy apologies for the atrocious rope coiling here (you wouldn’t think I was a sailor by how bad I am with rope!).

Type L Field Telephone

In the past we have looked at an example of the heavy Bakelite field telephone, the ‘F’ type here. This was not the only field telephone in service with the British Army during World War two though, and tonight we are looking at another model that saw widespread use, the ‘L’:imageThis telephone is smaller and (marginally) lighter than the ‘F’ and whilst the Bakelite ‘F’ was ideally suited for use in field headquarters and offices, the ‘L’ was more portable and could be used in the field. The whole telephone is housed in a sturdy metal box:imageThe top lid is hinged and secured with a sprung metal hook:imageNote the metal plate fixed above the latch that indicates the telephone type. On each end are fixed metal loops to attach a shoulder strap to:imageThe winding handle is fixed on this end and is hinged. In the photograph above it is in the travel position, but it could be folded down when needed:imageRapidly turning this handle sent a charge down the line which rang the internal bell in the corresponding telephone letting that operator know he had a call. Slotted louvres are fitted into the box of the telephone to allow the sound of the bell to escape:imageLarge screw terminals are used to attach the telephone wire to, the wire is merely wrapped around the terminal and the top piece screwed down to make a secure electrical connection:imageThis telephone wire was issued on large drums and signallers ran these lines form one telephone to another:5e19b660c6f1c0c6ff228299e44c0e68--italian-campaign-winston-churchillA large and heavy Bakelite handset is used, typical of telephones of the era:imageThe operator pressed down the central bar in order to speak. This connects to the main telephone unit with a very chunky four pin plug:imageA metal plunger marked ‘CB’ for ‘central battery’ is fitted to the central section, just in front of the battery box:imageThis allows the power source of the telephone to be switched across to an external source such as a switchboard rather than the small internal cell batteries. The telephone used two large 1.5v batteries, housed in the centre under a metal lid. A printed plate on the underside of the lid reminds the operator how to wire them up:imageA second diagram is fitted as a transfer to the underside of the main telephone lid:imageThis gives a full wiring diagram for the telephone and would allow an experienced signalman to trace and fix any faults with the handset.

This telephone is in reasonable condition and at some point I need to get some batteries and wire and try linking up my ‘L’ and ‘F’ sets and see if they actually work!

Daylight Signalling Lamp

A few weeks ago we looked at the daylight signalling lamp battery box and tonight we have the opportunity to look at the daylight signalling lamp itself. Like the battery box the daylight signalling lamp is stored in a solid metal box:imageNote the same reinforcing strips pressed into the side of the box. The same webbing is attached to the top lids as we saw in the battery box. Unlike the battery box though, this box has two lids, each secured with a sprung catch. Loops are provided on each side of the box to attach a shoulder strap for carrying and a waist strap to steady the box when the user is running:imageThe daylight signalling lamp can be set up in a number of ways. A metal ground spike is included in the box and this can be pushed into the ground to allow the lamp to be used over a parapet. Alternatively the spike can be fitted into the box itself and this used as a base unit:imageFor longer distance signalling the wooden tripod can be used instead and altogether this makes a very impressive set up:imageYou may recognise that the tripod is the same one used with the heliograph. The signalling light itself is controlled by a Morse key on the underside of one of the lids:imageNote also the instructions warning the user not to waste the battery. This was particularly important because the lamp used eight 1.5 V batteries which were carried in the separate battery compartment. The same side of the box has storage for the ground spike with three holes, one for each of the sections. A top lid covers these pieces and a spring helps hold it down:imageThe ground spike is made of galvanised steel and has three sections that screw together to make up the full length of the pole, alternatively one or two sections may be used if the operator wishes to place the lamp nearer the ground:imageThe second compartment holds the batteries and the spare parts. Again this has a sprung lid and on the underside of this there are further instructions to the operator:imageThe eight 1.5V batteries are carried in the bottom of this compartment and a wooden spacer sits on top:imageThe spare parts tin is carried above the batteries. This tin is made of metal with lettering on the top explaining its contents:imageThe underside of the spare parts tin lid has a picture and instructions on how to fit a replacement bulb into the signalling lamp:imageSadly I am missing the spare bulb however I do have the smaller little parts tin that fits inside the larger spare parts tin:imageThe lamp itself is made of heavy duty metal, with a permanently attached power lead to connect it to the rest of the equipment:imageTwo different sized threads are fitted to the bottom of the lamp, the inner smaller one allows the ground spike to be screwed on; the larger, outer thread the tripod:imageA small sighting tube is attached to the top of the lamp body that allows you to line up the lamp with the receiving signal man’s position:imageA large reflector is provided behind the bulb to increase the intensity of the lamp, in daylight it has a range of about three miles, at night this extends to nearer twelve miles:imageAmongst the accessories for the signalling lamp are three different celluloid coloured lenses that fit over the main light body to provide different coloured signalling lights:imageThese signalling lamps were in use from the Great War, through to the end of World War Two. It was the coming of reliable VHF radios that finally spelled the end for much of the visual signalling devices used in the British Army. My set is missing a few of the accessories, but has all the essential bits and I am very pleased with the complete set up.image

No 19 Set Morse Key

There were many variations of the humble Morse code key in use by the British during the Second World War; some sources identify up to a hundred different variations. Tonight though we are looking at just one of these, a little Bakelite example:imageThese little keys were used by signallers to tap out messages in Morse code and were normally wired up to a wireless set, which then sent out the dots and dashes as a wireless signal. Alternatively the key could be wired to a signal lamp, more on that in a few days! Examples could be made of brass, Bakelite, silver alloy or sometimes a combination of materials. This example is made of very robust brown Bakelite. It consists of a base and a spring loaded rocker arm with a large Bakelite knob at one end:imageThe base of the key has a stores code marked on it:imageIn this case it is marked ZA16929, and according to the Imperial War Museum’s online database this indicates the key was used with the Wireless Set Number 19. A second marking at the end of the key reads ‘Key WT 8 Amp No2 MK III’:imageThe key works by completing or breaking a circuit every time the knob is pressed down. Normally the connectors nearest the knob are broken and the ones furthest away are connected, pressing down on the knob reverses that position:imageThis gives a great deal of flexibility allowing the key to be used regardless of how a wireless transmitter is wired- just attach the wires from the transmitter to the relevant connectors on the key.

Rod Balkham describes how he learnt Morse:

Over a period of what must have been several months I was turned into an OWL B3 – that is, Operator Wireless and Line (B3 being rated higher than B2, I seem to recall). This transmogrification was achieved mainly by the challenge of competition, plus – in my case in particular – my instinctive reaction to the sensitive understanding of the corporal who was our teacher. Unlike many another army corporal, he commanded respect in a firm but kindly manner, and he knew his job. As with the Bren gun, I became proficient with the Morse key without having to try very hard. To help us learn the Morse Code, the corporal offered us a few mnemonics, based on the rhythm of the dots and dashes. One was ‘Here comes the Bride’ – you can think of the bride as the Queen, he told us – thus arriving at dah dah dit dah for the letter ‘Q’. Another one, which I have good cause never to forget, was ‘Did-it ‘urt cher?’: Dit dit dah dit for the letter ‘F’, followed, inevitably, by ‘Like ‘ell it did’ for ‘L’.

Truvox Hand Held Microphone

At the start of this year I posted a piece about the Loudspeaker Control Unit here. At the time I noted that unfortunately it was missing a microphone. Happily I have now been able to add one of these to the collection and tonight we are having a look at this:imageThe microphone is made of cast metal and is extremely robust. Nearly identical pieces were made by both Tannoy and Truvox and I am pleased to say that this is a Truvox example which matches the manufacturer of my control unit. You will notice the webbing neck strap on the microphone, allowing it to be hung round the neck so it is close at hand. A button is fitted half way down the hand grip, the operator depresses this when he wishes to talk:imageOriginally a rubber cover was fitted over the microphone itself to direct the sound into the receiver and reduce interference from background noise. Sadly this has heavily perished over the years and is now rock hard:imageNote the ‘Truvox’ brand name cast into the metal and the brass screws holding the strap. The back of the microphone is heavily ribbed to help keep the microphone cool:imageInk stampings appear on either side of the microphone, to one identifies it as a powered microphone MK 1a:imageWhilst the other side has a stores code of YA4353:imageThe microphone fits neatly into the compartment in the Loudspeaker Control Unit:imageSadly this microphone has been modified post war and is missing its original wire and three pin female socket, so I can’t plug it in yet. I will be keeping my eye out for a replacement plug, but I suspect it might take a while until I find the right connector.

The 1A microphone was also used with the 19 set radio and is a differential carbon granule unit, using three wires- one common and two signal wires. I will be honest and say I have no idea what that means! However if you want more details on these microphones please look here.

Daylight Signalling Lamp Spare Battery Case

During both world wars the British army used battery powered daylight signalling lamps to send messages over short distances:10th Manchesters 1937The official manual explained its use:

The lamp can be read, under average conditions in daylight, at a distance of two miles with the naked eye and three to four miles with the telescope; at night, six miles with the naked eye and nearly twice that distance with the telescope. The beam of light from the lamp is visible for 40 yds. on either side of a station one mile distant, and proportionately farther at longer ranges.

These lamps used dry cell batteries and needed eight of them at a time. Eight were carried in the lamp’s box for immediate use and an additional sixteen were carried in their own metal box and it is one of those carrying boxes we are looking at tonight:imageThe box is made from pressed metal with a hinged lid covered in cotton webbing, reinforced at each corner:imageA sprung catch secures the lid:imageFour little feet are pressed into the base of the tin:imageThe sixteen batteries were carried inside in four rows of four and a fibre board insert on the underside of the lid helped protect the terminals of the batteries from damage:imageThe box has a webbing carrying strap, secured to the sides of the box with nuts and bolts:imageEach of the batteries put out 1 1/2 volts, with the outer case made of waxed card and with a pair of brass terminals on the top. Battery technology at the time was still pretty primitive, hence why so many small batteries were needed, connected together in series to provide the power for the lamp. Users were warned to only turn on the lamp when needed to signal to help conserve batteries, but spares were still essential and due to their fragility a strong metal case such as this one was helpful in protecting them from damage. For an excellent set of photographs of the complete daylight signalling lamp, plus complete accessories including a full example of the spare battery case please look here.